The forest ecology comprises a community of unique flora and fauna. It provided a natural habitat to millions of species of plants and animals. Depending upon the different climatic conditions, they can be called tropical rainforest, temperate, etc.
Types of forest ecosystem
The forest ecology is classified into three major types- tropical, temperate, and boreal.
The ecosystem of the tropical forest
Also known as tropical rainforest, it receives almost 100 inches of rain per year. Heavy rainfall has led to poor soil quality here due to the rains leaching the soil nutrients. The dense canopy makes it touch for the sunlight to reach the forest floor. It is home to a massive variety of birds, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, etc.
There are again divided into subcategories called-
This forest receives rainfall all year, without pause.
This forest has a short dry season and hosts an evergreen flora.
They have a long period of dry spells.
It receives precipitation in the form of fog, hence the name of cloud forests.
Tropical and subtropical coniferous forest
This variety has adapted to the dry and hot climatic conditions.
Temperate forest ecosystem
Found in North America, Eurasia, Japan, etc., these forests receive close to 30-60 inches of rainfall per year. This area experiences all four seasons with temperature variations. The rich soil allows a variety of vegetation to flourish. The forest inhabits many squirrels, deer, coyotes, raccoons, owls, hawks, etc.
It is further divided into temperate deciduous forest and temperate coniferous forest.
Temperate deciduous forest
These forests experience all the seasons, including the snowfall during the winter. The fertile soil allows a variety of vegetation to grow like ferns, wildflowers, oak, bitch, maple, etc.
Temperate coniferous forest
These forests are found in the coastal regions and receive rainfall of 50-200 inches per year roughly. It is mostly covered in a dense layer of decomposed matter. Deer, black bear, elk, marmor, spotted, etc., are typically found here.
Boreal Forest ecosystem
It is also known as Taiga forests found in Nothern Asia, Siberia, Canada, and Scandinavia. It experiences short summers and long winters. The trees found are mostly the evergreen variety with a dense canopy.
Savanna forest ecosystem
It is found in Africa, Australia, and South America. It is quite vulnerable to forest fires but also has the ability to re-grow. The landscapes are covered with lush greens, bushes, and feeble trees.
The ecosystem depends upon the seasonal variation of the country. A forest ecosystem may be a mix of two, which is why the trees always remain green. They attract birds of all species to shelter, providing favorable conditions.